Entrevista a Juan Andrés Siles, ganador de la XV Edición de los Premios CODESPA

Ganador de la categoría Periodismo para el Desarrollo ¿nos puedes contar qué ha significado para ti hacer este reportaje?

“Aprendiendo a cooperar” es una historia sobre basada en los testimonios de las enfermeras españolas que se han formado con FUDEN y la AECID en cuestiones vinculadas con la solidaridad. Teníamos cerca de una veintena de testimonios y el desafío de construir un relato coherente que mostrara el proceso de toma de conciencia de las enfermeras sobre los problemas de desarrollo que se habían encontrado en el terreno y transmitieran sus sensaciones con el fin de que el reportaje sirviera para sensibilizar al espectador. En todo momento queríamos evitar los enfoques sensacionalistas o paternalistas. Hemos perseguido un triple objetivo: mostrar la realidad de los cuidados de salud en Nicaragua, proponer soluciones a sus problemas y sensibilizar a la sociedad.
La elaboración de “Aprendiendo a Cooperar” ha tratado de aprovechar las ventajas de las nuevas tecnologías para desarrollar un proyecto periodístico de la mayor calidad posible. Nos ha supuesto un año de trabajo, desde que entrevistamos al primer grupo de enfermeras que viajó a Nicaragua en julio de 2010 hasta que publicamos el reportaje en junio de 2011. El reto era ensamblar todos los testimonios en un relato que transmitiera un mensaje de esperanza de que es posible cambiar la realidad comenzando por la aportación que uno mismo puede hacer a la sociedad, tal y como comprobamos con el ejemplo de estas enfermeras. El resultado final supone una inmensa satisfacción personal y profesional para todas las personas que de un modo u otro han participado en este proyecto.

¿Qué papel cree que tienen los medios de comunicación en la lucha contra la pobreza?

La comunicación para el desarrollo. Creo que éste debiera ser el horizonte del trabajo desarrollado por los medios de comunicación para convertirse verdaderamente en un instrumento de lucha contra la pobreza. Para ello, incluso cuentan con lo que podríamos calificar como “el libro de estilo para la defensa de los derechos humanos”, el denominado Informe McBride, titulado “Un sólo mundo, voces múltiples”, que ya en 1980 nos dio las claves para dar voz a los más pobres, democratizar la comunicación y eliminar, de esta forma, los desequilibrios y desigualdades que existen en el mundo. Los medios deben ser conscientes de que son fundamentales para cambiar y mejorar nuestro modelo social y nuestro modelo de desarrollo. En caso contrario se verán desbordados por otros instrumentos, tal y como ya hemos comprobado tanto en nuestro país como en el resto del mundo con la reacción de los ciudadanos para demandar más democracia. La comunicación es el cauce para difundir la necesidad de mejorar el desarrollo humano de las sociedades y aumentar la conciencia de los ciudadanos sobre la realidad política, económica y social de las poblaciones más vulnerables.

¿Y el papel de los españoles?

En el contexto económico y político actual, resulta imprescindible mostrar el trabajo de la cooperación y su aportación al desarrollo de los países y las sociedades más empobrecidas. Los medios españoles deben afrontar la responsabilidad de mostrar la incidencia de nuestras políticas de desarrollo, ya que estamos cayendo en el error de analizar el mundo a través de la perspectiva economicista que nos están imponiendo. Sin embargo, detrás de los números hay historias reales, las decisiones tomadas en base a un balance económico tienen un impacto directo, en ocasiones negativo, por lo que no se pueden tomar exclusivamente con el argumento de la necesidad de cuadrar unos presupuestos. En este sentido, la cooperación y el trabajo de voluntariado son fundamentales para lograr un mundo más igualitario y justo. El desarrollo es un compromiso con las poblaciones más vulnerables y el voluntariado una manera de cumplirlo. La cooperación es necesaria e imprescindible y así lo tenemos que transmitir. Por estos motivos son importantes iniciativas como los Premios CODESPA y por ello transmito mi enhorabuena a la Fundación.

¿Qué ha significado para ti recibir ese galardón?

Personalmente me siento muy feliz con este reconocimiento. Estoy muy contento y satisfecho, teniendo en cuenta el nivel y la relevancia de los premios CODESPA, los ganadores anteriores y la calidad de los trabajos periodísticos presentados junto a la decimoquinta edición junto con “Aprendiendo a cooperar”. Es un hecho por el que estoy muy orgulloso y que me anima a seguir hacia delante con este tipo de trabajos.

¿Por qué consideras que son importantes este tipo de reconocimientos?

Este tipo de iniciativas son importantes porque apoyan el trabajo de los colectivos, empresas, medios y personas vinculadas con la cooperación y el desarrollo y sirven de aliento a todas las entidades solidarias para seguir trabajando para construir un mundo mejor. En este sentido, el respaldo ofrecido por Fundación CODESPA con sus premios resulta sobresaliente. En nuestro caso, en FUDEN y Enfermería Tv hemos comprobado que nos ha ayudado a cumplir con uno de nuestros propósitos, la sensibilización de la sociedad para mostrar la necesidad de transformar la realidad con el fin de mejorar la salud de las poblaciones empobrecidas. Desde el punto de vista de la difusión ha potenciado de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa la repercusión del reportaje, teniendo en cuenta que la cooperación y el desarrollo es un ámbito temático al que los grandes medios de comunicación suelen dar muy poca cobertura.

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